Wandile Sihlobo’s technocratic support for GM and related technology misses the mark:

Southern African civil society responds to false claims about benefits to food and nutrition security

by Glenn Ashton1

Wandile Sihlobo, chief economist of AgBiz, an influential association of Southern African agribusiness,2 has recently shared a number of his views around matters related to genetically modified (GM) and gene drive crops. He has unfortunately failed to engage carefully and properly with issues related to land and food security or with the extensive body of knowledge and evidence in this field. This is largely due to his optimistic perspective on the potential of GM technology to increase food production, which he presumes will enhance regional and national food and nutritional security. While his views echo those within the GM crop industry, such perspectives are far from universally held. We feel that he has failed to provide sufficiently balanced or nuanced positions able to suitably explore this important topic.

The first article which requires analysis titled “To achieve food security, Africa must not shy away from new technology,”3 was published in Business Day on 4 May 2021. It was echoed by similar article published by Project Syndicate titled “A New Chance for Genetically Engineered Crops.” 4 In each Sihlobo unabashedly states that yield gains in South Africa’s maize crop from 2.4 tonnes/ ha to 5.9 tonnes/ ha “… are therefore largely attributable to the adoption of GE maize.” This bold claim cannot stand unchallenged.

Unpacking gains in maize production

Since South Africa adopted GM maize in the late 1990s the grain seed sector has seen considerable consolidation and concentration of expertise in breeding and germplasm management. The lucrative maize seed industry is now dominated by large multinational corporations. This consolidation has driven some significant advances in breeding over the past 20 years, related not to GM technology but instead to improved germplasm (seed quality). hese advances have also been assisted over several recent maize seasons by ideal weather conditions for maize production, as well as a notable increase in irrigated production. While irrigation can double maize yields compared to dry land farming, agricultural irrigation uses more than 60% of our scarce water resource.

Additionally grain farming, particularly maize, has seen significant consolidation in farm size over this period. Smaller farms have been bought out, leased or consolidated. This capital intensive, high input farming has also shifted toward control by large and increasingly corporate owned entities.5 These have enhanced mechanisation and infrastructure to create economies of scale. The average farm size, according to Sihlobo,6 has increased from around 1400 ha to 2300 ha, with a proportional drop in the number of farms. Each of these realities run counter to stated South African government land policy.7

The actual contribution of GM crops to our increased yields remains spurious. Even the most recent studies (Ala-Kokko et al. 2021)8 provide projected rather than actual yield increases. Even these projected increases provide, at most, an advantage of 0.6 tonnes/ ha increase above conventional maize. This is far below the 3.4 tonnes/ ha increase (from 2.5 tonnes to 5.9 tonnes/ha) Sihlobo claims in his article, a number which is disputed.9 More relevant is that the Ala-Kokko paper explicitly states that “…it is naive to think that increasing food supply is the only element of food security,” let alone nutritional security.

Narrow GM crop focus undermines necessary food system change for healthy and nutritious food

This statement is borne out by the reality that even with increased maize yields, food security – and more importantly nutritional security (a lack of sufficient nutrients for a healthy life) – have deteriorated since the introduction of GM crops into South Africa. It is remarkable, and noted by Ala- Kokko and other sources,10 that health indicators like stunting and obesity – both indicators of malnutrition – have worsened over the same period.

A strong counter-argument can be made that such a narrow focus on GM crops, rather than addressing nutritional challenges, has diverted our attention from the real changes required in the food system to address food and nutritional insecurity meaningfully. The reality is GM maize contributes primarily to a commodity value-chain focused on bulk processed foods and exports rather than on the appropriate affordable, diverse, fresh and whole foods required for improved nutrition and health. Additionally, these processed commodity foods have seen, and continue to see sharp price increases.11

If we are to address food and nutritional security, food sovereignty should be a key objective of our food system. Central to this concept is the value that in a democratic society the people who produce, distribute, and consume food should also control the mechanisms and policies of food production and distribution. uch control is directly undermined by GM seed technology, which perniciously undermines farmers’ own seed selection and saving systems while locking farmers into a high cost input regime. The loss of access to open-pollinated landraces that have been developed over time by farmers themselves is usually irreversible.

It is equally important that government actively supports practices such as food sovereignty and agro-ecological production in order to ensure stable, diverse local food economies, particularly around the cities where more than two thirds of our population now live. These must enhance the availability of culturally appropriate, nutritious and sustainable food, as well as ensure broader control of the mechanisms and policies of food production and distribution, all assisting the means to access food.

Conflating GM and riskier gene edited crops

Another, perhaps more worrying aspect to Sihlobo’s apparent fixation on GM crops as a solution to food security and an adjunct to economic growth is his conflation of GM crops (both in Business Live 4 May 2021 and Project syndicate on 26 May 2021)12 and gene edited crops, also known as gene drive crops. GM crops are older products, already in fields around the world. Gene edited crops on the other hand are a novel, yet to be deployed technology, where no foreign DNA is inserted into crops. Instead this new technology edits existing genes within organisms without adding foreign DNA. This is managed through technologies such as CRISPR/CAS (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) and zinc finger nucleases. These genetic editing tools enable technologists to cut, copy and splice the DNA of any organisms, similarly to the cut and copy text on functions on computers.

While these technologies are claimed to be more accurate and less random than the older GM technology, published research has raised increasing questions around genetic disruption of off- target genes which were not meant to have been altered.13 14 15 These changes can have potentially serious negative impacts as shown by a number of concerns16 raised about the possibility of genetic disruption.17

Because of these concerns, those engaged in animal and human gene drive experiments propose to carefully monitor for any possible negative impacts for many years after the event. On the other hand those pushing for the acceptance of gene drive crops and foods seek to release them into the market without labeling, tracking or monitoring. This means that any possible negative impacts may only be identified once they have spread, which will be too late. Civil society and knowledgeable specialists have warned against such hasty deregulation of this contested technology.18 It is strongly opposed in the EU19 and elsewhere, contrary to Sihlobo’s claim of a push toward review or deregulation.

It is concerning that Sihlobo’s conflates these two distinct technologies without meaningfully engaging with the differences, risks and requirements for regulation or with public concern with this new technology. It is disturbing such novel technologies are so glibly promoted without sufficient research, combined with an apparent pro industry bias. This is especially so given Sihlobo’s influential position as chief economist with AgBiz. We argue that we should rather enhance our understanding of the issues at stake in order to responsibly regulate these novel and as yet not fully understood technologies rather than promoting them as a panacea.

Even if gene editing does provide a positive contribution, it stands to make certain corporations and individuals extremely wealthy. We would prefer a precautionary approach which must include careful, broad public engagement, especially in light of the pressure to deregulate and profit from these experimental technologies exerted by powerful commercial interests.

The hubris of those such as Bill Gates20 who wish to impose technological “solutions” like GM and gene edited crops into Africa needs to be balanced against consideration of locally applicable, proven and accepted solutions. Gates has directed billions dollars of scarce research funds toward African agriculture over the past 15 years with little appreciable impact.21 This focus has diverted attention from the real issues and from proven, locally appropriate solutions to food and nutritional security.

GM wheat concerns for South Africa

We must also raise concerns with Sihlobo’s equally ill-considered letter supporting the adoption of GM wheat (Business Day 29 April 2021),22 titled “GM wheat would be welcome in South Africa.” Firstly it is not clear who would welcome GM wheat, beside Sihlobo. It is doubtful whether it would gain wide public or farmer support. Sihlobo bases his support on the “astonishing improvement in yields since the adoption of genetically modified seeds,” a spurious claim already dealt with.

GM wheat was briefly considered for adoption in North America by Monsanto, the company responsible for the development of the majority of existing GM crops. However worldwide public resistance to the genetic alteration of a global staple crop like wheat forced Monsanto to shelve this project. Despite this, traces of Monsanto’s GM wheat have subsequently inexplicably emerged at least four times in various locations in North America. This demonstrates how it is near impossible to put the GM genie back into its bottle once released.

The GM wheat Sihlobo refers to was developed in Argentina for drought resistance as well as being able to withstand application of the herbicide Glufosinate ammonium, a toxic, persistent and mobile pesticide. Its links to human reproductive system toxicity have led to its withdrawal from France. The EU considers Glufosinate as highly toxic and is contemplating a ban. Herbicide resistant crops are linked to increased chemical use in South Africa and elsewhere.

South Africa would also put its world-class wheat breeding programmes at risk by introducing a GM strain of wheat, as shown by the experience of GM wheat in North America. It is also questionable whether the South African public would appreciate having this crop foisted upon them. It appears presumptuous of Sihlobo to suggest this product would be welcomed here.

GM technology – who benefits?

Let’s rather focus on these two central questions: Firstly has the adoption of GM products proven, over the past 20 + years, to address food and nutritional security in South Africa? Secondly has the widespread adoption of these industrial commodity crops advanced urgent matters of national development, such as land reform and agricultural diversification?

While South Africa has increased its production of some staple crops, these increases in production are not linked to the technology, but rather to improved germplasm, economies of scale, increased irrigation and to a large extent in recent years, ideal weather conditions. Recent data shows the economic advantages of GM crops remain marginal23 with the real winners being the agricultural input companies such as the seed and pesticide companies – members of AgBiz – rather than the farmers.

As far as advancing the national interest, we have seen food and nutritional security deteriorate even though commodity crop production has increased. What good is more food if people cannot afford it? Further, high carbohydrate diets are linked to non-communicable diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease,24 all on the rise here. We have seen a consolidation within the grain sector and diminished focus on the production of high nutrient row crops like pulses and horticulture crops like vegetables amongst emerging small and medium farmers.

As far as addressing national priorities, such as land reform and restitution, commodity crops have played a central role in increased consolidation of prime agricultural land into private, mostly white owned hands as economies of scale have been pursued. High entry barriers run counter to meaningful agricultural diversification and change. The primary beneficiaries are those who control the technology, along with large agricultural enterprises, rather than those in sectors where change is most urgently required.

If anything, Sihlobo’s various articles illustrate the risks of evaluating technologies through a narrow econometric lens. While GM crops may have shown marginal improvements from an economic perspective they have poorly served our priorities of addressing sections 25 and 27 of the constitution. For instance they have not improved access to sufficient food and have arguably hindered citizens’ ability to equitable land access and restitution.

Our over-arching takeaway message is this: agricultural governance is not best served through the pursuit of a narrow economic or technocentric perspectives, nor of continuing to enable the dominance of neo-liberal, industrial, extractive policy formulation. Rather we need an interdisciplinary approach to create a suitably nuanced governance model for resilient and sustainable national food and nutritional security practices.

This response is written on behalf of and is supported by the following organisations and independent individuals:

Abelimi Bezekhaya, South Africa

African Centre for Biodiversity, South Africa Afristar Foundation, South Africa Biodiversity Conservation Initiative, Malawi

Biodynamic Agricultural Association of Southern Africa Biowatch, South Africa

Bonakude Farm, South Africa EarthLore Foundation Eategrity, South Africa

Environmental Monitoring Group, South Africa Florian Kroll, individual

Dan Moody, individual

Dr David Fig, Fellow of the Transnational Institute, Amsterdam Foundation for Human Rights, South Africa

Glenn Ashton, individual

Global Environmental Trust, South Africa Good Food Network, South Africa Hoedspruit Hub, South Africa

Mahlathini Organics, South Africa

Mfolozi Community Environmental Justice Organisation, South Africa PGS South Africa, South Africa

ReSCOPE Programme, Zambia Rural Women’s Assembly

SA Urban Food & Farming Trust

South African Organic Sector Organisation Southern African Food Lab

Stha Yeni, individual

Trust for Community Outreach and Education Dr Stephen Greenberg, individual


1 Glenn Ashton holds a Masters in Environmental Management and is a PhD candidate in food systems governance. This response is written on behalf of and is supported by the organisations and independent individuals listed on page 5.

2 AgBiz, about us, profile. https://agbiz.co.za/content/about-us?page=profile

3 W. Sihlobo. To achieve food security, Africa must not shy away from new technology. 4 May 2021. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/opinion/columnists/2021-05-04-wandile-sihlobo-to-achieve-food-security-africa-must- not-shy-away-from-new-technology/

4 Sihlobo, W. A New Chance for Genetically Engineered Crops, Project Syndicate. https://www.project- syndicate.org/commentary/eu-review-policy-on-genetically-engineered-crops-africa-by-wandile-sihlobo-2-2021-05

5 Ducastel, A. & W. Anseeuw. 2018. Agriculture as an asset class and the financialisation of the South African farming sector. Cirad/ University of Pretoria. Conference presentation.

6 Sihlobo, W. 13 November 2019. Address to agricultural business chamber: SA agriculture: finding its place in a depressed economy. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.

7 The Regulation of Land Holdings Bill which provides limits to the size of farms (not yet promulgated).

8 Ala-Kokko, C., et al. 2021. Economic and ecosystem impacts of GM maize in South Africa. Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912421000535

9 The decade prior to 1998, cited by Sihlobo includes two extreme drought years with disastrous yields – 1991/2 & 1994/5, so the yield of ~2.5 T/ha does not reflect meaningful historical figures. In fact SA yields show a closer correlation with LaNina & ElNino years than with that of GM maize. The real point here is that correlation does not equal causation. Is it GM, or climate, or improved seed, or irrigation, or economy of scale? Or perhaps a bit of each? Increased yields cannot honestly be attributed to only one cause.

10 Otterbach, S. & M. Rogers. 2017. Spatial Differences in Stunting and Household Agricultural Production in South Africa: (Re-)Examining the Links Using National Panel Survey Data. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3041804

11 Pietermaritzberg Economic Justice and Dignity: household affordability index: https://pmbejd.org.za/index.php/household-affordability-index/

12 Sihlobo, W. 4 May 2021. To achieve food security, Africa must not shy away from new technology. Business Live. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/opinion/columnists/2021-05-04-wandile-sihlobo-to-achieve-food-security-africa-must- not-shy-away-from-new-technology/

Sihlobo, W. 26 May 2021. A New Chance for Genetically Engineered Crops. Project Syndicate. https://www.project- syndicate.org/commentary/eu-review-policy-on-genetically-engineered-crops-africa-by-wandile-sihlobo-2-2021-05

13 Murugan, K., Seetharam, A. S., Severin, A. J., & Sashital, D. G. (2020). CRISPR-Cas12a has widespread off- target and dsDNA-nicking effects. Journal of Biological Chemistry.

14 Kosicki M et al (2018). Repair of double-strand breaks induced by CRISPR–Cas9 leads to large deletions and complex rearrangements. Nature Biotechnology 36:765–771. https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.4192

15 Tuladhar R et al (2019). CRISPR-Cas9-based mutagenesis frequently provokes on-target mRNA misregulation. Nature Communications vol 10, Article number: 4056, 6 Sept. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12028-5

16 Eckerstorfer MF et al (2019). An EU perspective on biosafety considerations for plants developed by genome editing and other new genetic modification techniques (nGMs). Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00031 17 Kawall K et al (2020). Broadening the GMO risk assessment in the EU for genome editing technologies in agriculture.

Environmental Sciences Europe 32: 106. https://enveurope.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s12302-020-00361-2 18 Researchers call for greater awareness of unintended consequences of CRISPR gene editing. Francis Crick Institute. Accessed 2/6/2021 https://www.crick.ac.uk/news/2021-04-09_researchers-call-for-greater-awareness-of-unintended- consequences-of-crispr-gene-editing

19 Genome editing and biodiversity. https://www.villeniinisto.fi/en/genome-editing-and-biodiversity

20 Rosset, P. 22 September 2006. Gate’s Approach to African Hunger is Bound To Fail. Seattle Post Integencer. https://archive.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/africa/2006/0922gatesafrica.htm

21 Rosa Luxemburg Stifting/Foundation. 2020. False Promises: The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). https://www.rosalux.de/fileadmin/rls_uploads/pdfs/Studien/False_Promises_AGRA_en.pdf

22 LETTER: GM wheat would be welcome in SA. Wandile Sihlobo. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/opinion/letters/2021- 04-29-letter-gm-wheat-would-be-welcome-in-sa/

23 Ala-Kokko, ibid.

24 Jenkins, J. A., et al. 2021. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality. NEJM, 384:1312- 1322


“The True Nature of Sharks” by Ila France Porcher: Book Review.


By Glenn Ashton.


Occasionally a special book appears that makes you sit up and reconsider your understanding of the world, or at least a part of it. The True Nature of Sharks is such a book. This book echoes how Diane Fossey and Jane Goodall forced us to completely reassess how we perceived the great apes, our closest relatives. While sharks may only be a very distant relative, Porcher’s book is no less revolutionary, in that it forces us to reassess how we perceive and understand sharks. Her work is instrumental in firmly shifting our understanding of sharks away from the obsolete trope of sharks as killing machines. Instead she portrays them as intelligent, predictable individual animals capable of so much more than generally assumed.

Through the ages sharks gained a largely unquestioned reputation as frightening predators just waiting to eat anything and anybody entering the watery realms. Modern history reinforced these tropes with stories of pilots and sailors being attacked during the war years and of all oceans users being at constant risk. This was exemplified in Peter Benchley’s “Jaws”, a book he later expressed regret about writing for the way it maligned sharks. Through these influences, sharks, like all creatures that take humans as incidental prey, have become perceived as creatures that reflect our deepest primeval inbred fears of consumption by wild beasts, as mindless, aggressive predators, without exception.

Porcher turns the entire trope on its head. Several years of living on the beautiful Polynesian island of Moorea enabled her to closely observe several species of reef sharks in their habitat over an extended period. She has managed to combine her observations into a fascinating, ground-breaking book that forces us to completely reassess how we see sharks. Through careful record keeping and categorisation of the ethology – the study of formal behaviour patterns of animals observed in wild conditions – she shares the reality of how these remarkable animals exhibit behaviours that go far beyond our common assumptions of sharks.

From her first unexpected encounters with sharks in these beautiful fringing lagoons, Porcher learns that sharks are individuals with personalities, memories and yes, even a consciousness that combine to turn conventional wisdom on its head. We are clearly shown that sharks are everything but the natural born killers that popular media make them out to be. Even after years of intimate interaction with these sharks, feeding them, observing them and spending what must amount to many hundreds of hours in the water with them she never felt inordinately threatened by the behaviour of these fascinating creatures.

She tells of the tragic consequences of a visit from a shark finning fleet through the area. This event clearly illustrates how conventional wisdom of sharks being a danger to humans is not just wrong but antithetical. The reality is that it is people who kill an estimated 70 million sharks every year, mainly to feed shark fin soup to high-rolling Chinese diners, or to supply fish and chip shops “flake”, the commercial name for shark. Sharks also fall victim in massive numbers as bycatch in commercial nets and longlines, only to be discarded as bycatch.

Consequently sharks have seen catastrophic declines with several species on IUCN lists of endangered species. For Porcher this reality was brutally driven home when many of the sharks she was familiar with disappeared, never to return after Singapore shark fin fishing companies moved through the area. Through her work shark finning was banned throughout French Polynesia.

But where Porcher’s brilliance really shines through is in her patient recording of how sharks behave in the wild. She takes these observations and manages to clearly communicate these interactions to illustrate the consciousness and individuality of sharks. As she gradually became familiar with the resident sharks, she named each one through its patterning, nicks and marks or behaviour. Her assiduous collection data and observations of each shark, when it was seen, how it behaved, how they interacted with other sharks and fish are never allowed to become a fusty scientific record but rather evolve into a living diary of how these sharks are an intrinsic link in the life of the reef and of the region.

This book is an invaluable record that shows how sharks return to familiar territories after mating in the open ocean, time and again. More revealingly it shows how these sharks recognise and interact with her upon return and how the personalities of individual sharks shine through by their unique behaviour patterns.

While she clearly grows fond of the sharks her observations never fall into the trap of anthropomorphism – providing them human characteristics to other species where none exist. Instead she builds a solid repertoire of observed animal behaviour and how they form an intrinsic part of a much larger web of life. She points out how disruptions, such as the visit of the shark finners or of sport fishermen, have massive impacts on the behaviour of sharks in an area and consequently on the entire web of life that interacts with the sharks.

This book is further enhanced by beautiful illustrations. Porcher uses her considerable artistic talent and shares some of her remarkable paintings and drawings of sharks. She has also employed clever techniques to foreground the sharks she has photographed that enables them to stand out against a background that they naturally suited to blend into as camouflage. These pictures show behaviour that we are fortunate to be able to share through this medium.

The True Nature of Sharks is a must buy for anybody who finds beauty and wonder in the web of life. It is logically laid out. The narrative flows well and provides an easy read, an important task in communicating non-fiction to the layman. Sharks have fairly recently begun to be appreciated by many as the fascinating creatures they are. A growing industry now attracts tourists to observe, dive and interact with them in sites around the world.

Porcher stands out as a pioneer in being able to give voice and logic to our growing appreciation of these fascinating and ancient creatures. She shares how these keystone species keep our oceans in balance and how even traditionally feared species like Tiger and Bullshark are able to form unique bonds with humans, showing adaptation was not considered possible. Porcher is the first person to enable us to get under their skin in order to appreciate the beauty of how this species has evolved over hundreds of millennia.

We still have much to learn about the complexity and interconnectedness of life. We are truly fortunate to have people like Ila France Porcher share their important stories with the world about how these maligned creatures display behaviours that are completely at odds with what was previously considered possible.


Ashton has spent most of his life around the world’s oceans, working on fishing vessels and sailing around the world, surfing and diving. He is fortunate to have visited and dived in the waters of Moorea where this book is largely based and become familiar with the sharks of this archipelago, amongst others. He holds a Masters degree in environmental management and is working toward completing his PhD.

Five years after her passing we should reflect on the importance of Elinor Ostrom’s Nobel Prize win.

This article was originally published in 2009: today, the 12 June 2017, is five years after Ostrom’s death. If anything, her relevance has increased since she left us and her theories enjoy ever widening currency. Here is my reflection on her Nobel Prize win, written shortly after it was announced.

The nomination of Elinor Ostrom for the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is a timely recognition not only of her work but also of the mess that conventional economic theory has landed us in. It is probably safe to say that the awarding of the prize to Ostrom is as close to inciting revolutionary economic activity that the Royal Swedish Academy on Sciences, who decide the recipients, can get.

Not many people outside the rarefied world of academic or developmental economics were aware of who Elinor Ostrom was until she burst upon the firmament of pre-eminent economic thinkers with her joint award of the Nobel Prize.

Not only was this the first woman to win the Economics Prize, but a woman who was splashed across the pages of the worlds media wearing a tie-dyed tee shirt. And the theories which she has fleshed out over her career are as unconventional as her couture.

Elinor Ostrom has long been a known entity amongst progressive thinkers and economists. The fact that she is not an economist but a political scientist may go some way in explaining her relative obscurity as an economic thinker. More importantly this leads us to ask just why her out of the box thinking is so relevant to us, especially given the recent near meltdown of the global financial system.

The failure of ‘free market’ economics has revealed how conventional neo-liberal economic thinking has resulted in an inherently unstable and destructive system. The dominant market model of unfettered access to markets and movement of capital, minimal regulation and reliance on derivatives, futures and junk bonds has been shown up as a shadow of its Herculean hubris.

Free market economics theory only really remains popular with the top percent of the world’s earners, whose incomes have continued to rise while everyone else – middle, working and poor classes alike – has borne the burden of the presumption of the lords of selfish capitalism.

From pre-industrial times, economic centralisation of wealth has held sway because of the benefits it visited upon the ruling classes. An early trend that propelled this concentration of wealth occurred through what has been termed as the enclosure of the commons. Under this, common land – commonage – was increasingly appropriated into private ownership in the name of economic efficiency.

This was, predictably, an unpopular move toward further concentration of wealth amongst the already wealthy, in turn dispossessing the already marginalised, who were relegated to the role of cheap wage labour. Beside the logic, the questionable justice of the enclosure movement was widely protested, as illustrated by this 17th century poem:-

They hang the man and flog the woman,

Who steals the goose from off the common,

Yet let the greater villain loose,

That steals the common from the goose.

The assumptions underpinning the enclosure movement drove colonial expansion, the appropriation of distant commons, just as modern enclosure appropriates traditional knowledge through patents and intellectual property.

In 1968 the ecologist Garret Hardin wrote a highly influential essay entitled “The tragedy of the commons”, where he pointed out that natural resources of the world, which are communally owned, will inevitably become degraded because of increased pressure on the limited resources by ever greater numbers of people. Liberal and capitalist thinkers used his conclusions as justification, on the one hand, for further enclosure of the commons to transfer public goods into private hands, and on the other as “free riders” to pollute and exploit those commons that are unable to be enclosed – the oceans, water and atmosphere, for example – as a shared resource, by externalising the cost of these impacts.

Elinor Ostrom has stood all of this on its head. Her lifetime’s work, from the perspective of a political scientist, has focused on commonly managed natural and human made resources, or common pool resources as they are termed in modern analysis. She has examined numerous examples around the world, in a manner that is both humanistic in perspective and scientific in rigour.

Ostrom scrutinised First World examples such as local government in California and the size of police precincts in the Midwest, as well as Third World examples such as modern and traditional irrigation schemes in Nepal, as well as various forestry and fishery management methods around the world.

Her conclusions, backed by statistical and empirical evidence, clearly demonstrate that communally owned natural resources can indeed be sustainably managed. What is interesting, and perhaps most relevant to our increasingly overcrowded world, is that these systems operate best within smaller communities. This may seem obvious and is backed by conventional social theory which says that functional communities generally number less than 1000 people, usually far less.

The more people in a community, the more complex governance and management becomes and the more likely that free riders will encroach on the system, destabilising it. Failures can and do occur but Ostrom’s work examines why these happen – most commonly because of authoritarian meddling or other external interference.

Ostrom’s work is uplifting in that it is a ‘crane,’ not a ‘skyhook’. These terms were devised by the author Daniel Dennett in his book “Darwin’s Dangerous Idea.” A ‘crane’ is a system that is built upon a solid foundation to reach its apogee of complexity. ‘Cranes’ are systems based upon practical implementation.

A ‘skyhook’ on the other hand is a theory that is built upon trust, like religion, or a miracle, or the theory of trickle down economics. This is why Ostrom’s work is arguably of greater importance than that of many economists who have preceded her – because it has practical, real world implications and applications and is not built on conviction alone.

According to the Harvard commentator Umar Haque, her work is also important because it is so different to the abstract calculations of economists. He cites important reasons for the prominence of her work. Firstly, the practical fieldwork upon which her work is based, her ‘crane’, is in and of itself unusual for economic theoreticians, who conventionally have relied upon arcane quantitative models and not qualitative insights.

In doing so she has shifted beyond conventional economic architecture, conventionally founded upon flawed rational assumptions such as open markets and minimal regulation. Instead she proposes a new system of governance – polycentric governance – where small, medium and large scale democratic units can operate independently as well as interdependently, in order to make and enforce specific rules for a particular geographical area.

This aspect of her work has immense implications and relevance to developing nations such as South Africa or India and provides a useful democratic model that can enhance the dominant centralised western model of governance.

Finally Haque points out that Ostrom’s work lacks prescription. Because conventional economic theory describes a perfect world, – even though the real world is far from perfect – it is largely irrelevant in building a better world. Instead of relying on the historical framework of theoretical economics, with all of its flaws, Ostrom has instead examined real world problems that are applicable to real world issues and which can hopefully assist us to arrive at real world solutions.

All of this points toward just why Ostrom’s Nobel Prize is both timely and relevant. We face not only a global economic crisis but also many global environmental crises – global warming, overfishing, a water crisis, mass extinctions, rainforest destruction and so on – a depressing litany of woes created primarily by the few who exploit the existing system for their own selfish ends.

Given the crisis of the commons and that our present economic system is bound to collapse, founded as it is on the unfettered exploitation of the natural world for its continued exponential growth, Ostrom’s work opens the door to solutions which are relevant and indeed revolutionary.

The Royal Swedish Academy on Sciences has previously rewarded several unconventional thinkers: James Tobin, who suggested a tax on speculative money; Amartya Sen whose work on welfare economics, poverty and gender inequality has shaped progressive economic thought and Joseph Stiglitz, who slated the role of free market fundamentalism, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in exacerbating global poverty.

But the award of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to its first female recipient is ground breaking in many ways. It sparks hope that future economic theory will be built on some of her important concepts. We certainly need to shed some light into the dark corner we seem to have painted ourselves into in this time of economic gloom and ecological doom.

Hopefully Elinor Ostrom’s work will be practically applied to the real world on which it is founded so we can shift focus from the pie-in-sky economic theories that have landed us in such profound trouble.

View this article online here: http://www.sacsis.org.za/site/article/371.1

By Glenn Ashton. Ashton is a writer and researcher working in civil society. Some of his work can be viewed at http://www.ekogaia.org.


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Shadow dancing with debt: The credit ratings agencies must be reformed.

15 November 2014.

South African economic prospects have recently been downgraded, yet again, by major credit ratings agencies (CRA’s). The nation’s sovereign rating now stands just above junk bond status. Major parastatals like Eskom and Sanral have also been knocked by ratings declines because of poor planning and investment decisions. Similarly, South Africa’s highly regarded and robust banking system has been marked down by the CRA’s, precipitated by the recent blowback of African Bank’s questionable lending practices.

The fact is that these agencies have major impacts on investment decisions across the economic landscape. Consequently the inherent lack in transparency and accountability of the big three CRA’s – Standard and Poor, Fitch and Moody’s – is unacceptable.

While there are few arguments that South Africa’s economy is improving, the larger question about the massive influence of the rating agencies on international markets remains. Their welfare is inescapably linked to private capital while their decisions have massive economic and political repercussions.

Many institutions have reviewed the role of CRA’s over the years. Various UN bodies have examined them, both before the 2009 financial sector meltdown – which the ratings agencies not only failed to predict but which they arguably contributed to by failing to read obvious signs of speculation and market manipulation – to more recent interrogation which highlighted concerns around their lack of transparency and objectivity.

There remains profound ambivalence about their lack of independence. There is pressure to reform the malign influence of these undemocratic, unelected entities on international capital markets and especially to correct the inherent bias against the global south and toward first world financial institutions.

Turkey has a long record of objecting to the influence of the vagaries of these institutions. Premier Tayyip Erdogan suggested that a ratings downgrade by Fitch was politically rather than economically inspired and informed.

More sinister is the ability of the agencies to exploit inherent vulnerabilities in the economic system through their close alliances in the occult world of the casino economy. They are capable of essentially gaming the global financial system as inside traders. And just how have they failed to predict every single major financial crisis for the past two decades?

There was a degree of schadenfreude when various EU institutions howled about the downgrading of Greece, Ireland and Portugal to junk status by the big three after the 2009 financial meltdown, while equally speculative calls by the agencies on developing nations like Argentina, Ukraine and now South Africa are ignored. After all, the erosion of southern institutions stands to benefit first world capital markets by reducing the value of essential commodities like land, metals, energy and labour.

These inconsistencies highlight what essentially amounts to institutionalised manipulation of the market system by the dominant economic players. Already vulnerable nations and institutions are further marginalised and undermined. The agencies are ideally situated to readily initiate runs against currencies, undermine shareholder value and play the longs and shorts of arbitrage.

The Agencies themselves suggest that they, like the alternatives to democracy, are the least bad option. However this perspective is not only self-serving but unconvincing. The present reality is that the dominance of three massive financial institutions, joined at the hip to the dominant capitalist system, is incapable of independent reflection and assessment.

Several alternatives have been raised. Those closest to the system suggest that multilateral agencies such as the World Bank or the OECD act as independent arbitrators. However, such an approach is simply replacing one flawed system with another.

Another possibly more realistic option, called the Universal Rating Group, has already been put into play by a curious alliance of joint Chinese, Russian and US interests. This sort of option could be extended to a BRICS-aligned agency, which could be a more independent and attractive option.

Whatever the case, the existing CRA’s clearly fail to meet the requirements of a rapidly changing world, one which needs to evolve in order to shift to a more adaptable and equitable global economic model. The impetus toward economic and social transition is impeded by the power and vested interests of these agencies, combined with their failure to either provide reliable prediction or suitable adaptive strategies.


Originally published by SACSIS, the South African Civil Society Information Service in November 2014.


Propaganda dressed as news

How Corporate PR industry misinforms and lies to public in a post truth world.

The fossil fuel industry’s determination to manufacture doubt about global warming illustrates the desperation of the oil, gas and coal producers as the realities of climate change strike home. They have created a network of front organisations which actively engage in lies and misinformation about the realities of climate change. While the campaign is largely driven from within the developed world the global South has also been pulled into this high stakes dirty tricks campaign.Keith Bryer has been a regular columnist for South Africa’s largest newspaper group, Independent Media, for several years. He is published in the group’s Business Report, a daily business supplement distributed inside each of the group’s regional titles, reaching hundreds of thousands of readers. Strangely, neither Bryer, nor Business Report, are willing to disclose whether he is a paid columnist or just a source of free copy.

Bryer spent decades at the centre of the public relations department for British Petroleum (BP) South Africa. Now retired, he is listed as an associate partner of the major London based international PR company, Etoile Partners, a “geopolitical consultancy” (http://www.etoilepartners.com) whose clients include the oil industry and whose remit includes “reputation management”.

Recent revelations by whistleblowers have shown that decades ago the fossil fuel industry already knew more than anybody else about the impact of their products on climate change. (See nose198, The nuclear lie of the land.)

As a result, there is a real risk that companies like ExxonMobil can be held liable not just for covering up the known consequences of greenhouse gas emissions, but for lying about these and then embarking on a cynical long-term campaign to undermine any action to reduce fossil fuel use. The industry faces an unprecedented class action, dwarfing the extent of the punishment meted out to the tobacco industry, which already runs into hundreds of billions of dollars.

Exxon has known of these specific risks since the 1970s – from its own research. Yet despite having developed a scientifically sound model, Exxon not only failed to take action but instead rather chose to spend untold millions of dollars both covering up the facts and actively spreading doubt among the public, politicians and legislators.

Dozens of front organisations were created to push this agenda. Groups like the Competitive Enterprise Institute, The Heartland Institute and the Cato Institute continue to do so, effectively undermining and stalling meaningful action to address climate change.

The documents released in late 2015 by Inside Climate News and The New Yorker have prompted various US state attorneys, including those of New York, California, Massachusetts and the US Virgin Islands, to start investigations to uncover the fraud and malfeasance. The potential damages pose a threat to the very existence of the industry. The stakes could not be higher.

In order to spread this corporate counter-narrative as widely as possible the fossil fuel industry has exploited the increasingly tightly controlled corporate media conglomerates and the trend toward outsourced news gathering. Most people are unaware that a significant proportion of current news is sourced directly from public relations organisations contracted to multinational corporate interests, while mainstream media outlets simultaneously shrink newsrooms and staff to maximise profitability.

As journalists have declined, the ratio of PR news agency employees to journalists has risen. This media infiltration by vested interests has inevitably skewed the bias, as the flow of public relations masquerading as news swells to a flood. As liberal media baron Randolph Hearst put it, “News is what someone does not want you to print – the rest is advertising.”

This is where PR specialists such as South Africa’s Bryer enter the picture, having spent years fronting up for the fossil fuel industry. Not only does he snidely dismiss and denigrate the very notion of climate change, terming it “so-called,” and an unproven theory caused by the sun; he insists that those calling for action on emissions are “communists and socialists of every stripe” and “latter-day puritans”. These are well-documented tactics, widely employed by the Merchants of Doubt.

Reading Bryer’s articles is like juggling a series of contradictions. In one, he claims coal companies are being wrongly held liable for climate change, in another it’s Exxon that’s liable. He cites pundits like the utterly discredited ex-Greenpeace founder Patrick Moore as a reliable source. He claims dealing with climate change will be prohibitively expensive, yet fails to mention the staggering costs and risks of delayed action to manage the emerging impacts of global warming. Bryer unreservedly supports the oil and nuclear industries, excuses Volkswagen’s emissions fraud, undermines solar and wind-generated alternative energy. Naturally he disagrees vehemently with international agreements to deal with climate change. And as a seasoned PR hack, he spins a convincing story to a largely sympathetic audience.

The extent to which Bryer’s discourse closely parallels the identical narratives emerging elsewhere is telling. A recent example neatly demonstrated his role in this corporate echo chamber. In July 2016 he wrote of how ExxonMobil was forced to defend the liberties of free speech as it sought to counter legal investigations into its lies and cover-ups, as discussed.

Exxon has fought back on several fronts. First, it called in its PR media outlets; second, it engaged in the legal battle; and third, it harnessed tame legislators it has a record of funding. The underlying message was the absurd claim that Exxon’s right to free speech was being undermined and that it was the target of a latter-day witch-hunt by nefarious green groups.

Bryer’s narrative was essentially a cut-and-paste emanating from Exxon’s PR pundits in the USA. As far as I can ascertain Bryer has never indicated in any article he has written his link to Etoile, as an associate partner. Remember, their self-proclaimed job is “reputation management” for the oil and gas industry, among others.

I raised these failures of disclosure with the Press Council of South Africa. Despite pointing out the links between Bryer and the fossil fuel industry the Council insisted Bryer was free to express his opinion and that opinion cannot constitutionally be limited, as it is protected under the rights to free speech. Further appeals that provided detailed material links between Bryer and Etoile were likewise  dismissed, again citing the protected right to free speech.

This is a remarkable ruling on two accounts. First, the Press Code requires balance and the disclosure of vested interests. It stipulates that no intentional distortion or misrepresentation can be made, nor shall commercial interests be allowed to influence or slant reporting.  It also clearly states that conflicts of interest should not undermine the trust of the public in the media.

The fact that a business newspaper failed to disclose these links appears to be a significant moral and ethical lapse of disclosure, notwithstanding the Press Code.

Surely if Bryer’s writings were above-board and simply a reflection of his own opinions – not those he was paid to write for his entire professional life – he would disclose his links to Etoile? And surely Business Report would also feel morally obliged to share this information? Neither did so.

Surely neither he nor his publishers ought to be able to naively claim that he is simply a “retired communications consultant” providing his “opinion” – rather than an active player in the field?

On a more sinister note, Bryer’s role appears entirely consistent with that of the Merchants of Doubt, constantly seeking to cast aspersions, sew discord and undermine opposition to its interests. The first rule of propaganda is to repeat a lie, often; by doing so people start to believe it.

Glenn Ashton

Copyright © 2016 www.noseweek.co.za

– See more at: http://www.noseweek.co.za/article.php?current_article=3755#sthash.XeO81Ndw.dpuf

First printed in Noseweek Issue 205, November 2016. Please contact Noseweek for reprint permission via http://www.noseweek.co.za
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Authorities finally move against Australian mining company – Tormin accused of breaching environmental licence.

Photo of collapsed cliff
This cliff partially collapsed apparently as a consequence of activity at the Tormin mine on the West Coast.
20 October 2016

The controversial Australian mining company Mineral Resources Commodities (MRC) has launched a court case against the national Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) arising from the department’s raid on the company’s Tormin Mine, situated 350 kilometers north of Cape Town.

A spokesperson for the company Anne Dunn, confirmed that MRC was taking legal action.

The raid in late September had been expected after numerous complaints to mining and environmental authorities about alleged illegal actions by the mine in the coastal zone. These include the construction of structures on the beach zone, mining in prohibited zones and questions about a massive collapse of the sea cliffs below the mine processing plant.

These actions fall under the the National Environmental Management Act and specifically the Integrated Coastal Management Act (ICMA). They also appear to be in conflict with Tormin’s mine licence conditions managed under the Mineral Petroleum Resources Development Act.

This was the second recent blow for MRC. The company announced its withdrawal from the rich Xolobeni mineral sands project on the Wild Coast in July this year after divisions in the community peaked with the murder of anti-mining leader Sikhosiphi “Bazooka” Rhadebe in March.

Tormin’s mining practice has been in the spotlight since the mine began operations in March 2014. The following month the Department of Mineral Resources issued the mine with instructions to rectify several changes it had made to its mining practices which deviated significantly from the original environmental authorisation provisions of the mining licence.

These beaches are famous for their pink sands, tinted by high proportions of garnet, a super-hard and therefore commercially useful mineral. Other minerals – zircon, ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene – were further treasures hidden within the pink sands. These minerals collectively make up almost half of the beach by volume, a veritable bonanza. Tormin declared a profit of $12.9 million on a turnover of $48 million in 2015, its first full year of operation.

From the outset Tormin only had environmental clearance to extract around 5% of the minerals, specifically the zircon and rutile. This would have had only limited environmental impact. However the mine unilaterally began to extract the full range of minerals from the sand, a move that placed the environment of the mine at serious risk through extraction of half of the beach sand by volume.

These beaches are backed by steep, unstable sea cliffs. Consequently all mining – and any other activity at all – was forbidden in a buffer zone that extended 10 metres from the foot of the cliffs seaward. However this has apparently been ignored from the outset, with details of mining recorded in aerial photographs and Google Earth images.

Google Earth image from 2013 of the cliff prior to its collapse.
This was taken as the cliff started collapsing. Seepage from the mine site/groundwater table is evident. (Feb 2015) Photo supplied
Google earth view of the collapse (February 2016)
Another view of the partial collapse. Two notable things are visible here. A slurry on the left side of the collapse indicates high water levels. On the right hand side mine overburden pipelines are visible. These are illegally situated. The mining licence stipulates that they must be laid along roadways and buried. (May 2015)
This shows the “repairs” to the cliff by Tormin, which were presumably not permitted by the Department of Environmental Affairs as this would have required a NEMA section 24 notice and permission in respect to ICMA. Also it is evident from this picture that the mine has used its overburden to repair the cliff and also presumably material from its “dam” to the south of the mine processing site. (June 2016)

Because the entire mine is directly on the beach, it falls within what is defined by ICMA as the coastal protection zone. This includes an area up to a kilometre from the shoreline. ICMA provides substantial statutory protection to this important ecological zone, hence the exclusion zone. ICMA is administered by the DEA.

It is also important to note that when Tormin gained permission to mine the beach, mining was jointly governed by both DEA and DMR. DEA dealt with environmental governance and DMR with mining. However in December 2014 this changed into what is known as the “one environmental system” where DMR assumed all responsibilities for mine management, including the environment. This is central to the legal challenge Tormin has launched against DEA’s raid on the mine.

DMR appears to have insufficient capacity, knowledge, or will to enforce good environmental governance. This has been evident at Tormin. In March 2015 DMR questionably granted Tormin permission to expand the processing area, which also falls in the coastal zone. The department also permitted a radical change in mining methodology that involved trucking all the beach sand to the processing zone on the cliffs above the beach. This was originally to have been pumped in a concentrated slurry from the beach.

Worse yet, in April 2015 the Western Cape director of DMR granted permission for further plant expansion and for the illegal groyne – a structure running from the beach out to sea – that Tormin had built on the beach, from within the exclusion zone well into the surf zone. This kind of activity is prohibited under ICMA and requires extensive environmental research. The provincial DEA informed DMR that its permission was irregular and could not be countenanced. DMR failed to take further action.

Various independent parties repeatedly informed both DMR and DEA of their concerns about these contraventions, to no avail. In November 2015, the Centre for Environmental Rights wrote a letter to the Western Cape office of DEA, setting out that department’s obligations in terms of ICMA and its statutory obligation to take action against the alleged transgressions by Tormin. In May 2016 DEA responded that it took the matter seriously and was investigating,  in consultation with DMR.

Action was finally taken in the raid this month, almost a year after the letter to DEA. The raid involved  representatives from national and provincial DEA, The South African Police Services, The Department of Rural Development and Land Reform and the local Matzikama Municipality. DEA spokesperson Albi Modise told GroundUp that the raid formed part of a criminal investigation process.

The legality of the raid has subsequently been challenged by Tormin via its holding company Mineral Sands Resources. However the DEA was, at the time of writing, not aware of any legal challenge to the raid.

Several questions arise. First, if everything was above-board at Tormin why would the company be reluctant to allow inspection of its operations? Tormin has established a record of discouraging and preventing inspections by various parties, including DEA and the municipality. The latter’s officials have been forbidden by elected councillors to inspect the mine, an illegal action under the Municipal Systems Act. Tormin has claimed that inspections disrupt operations, a hollow excuse.

Secondly, if there were no problems, why is Tormin challenging the legality of the raid in what appears to be a direct attempt to stonewall the investigation?

Contacted by GroundUp, Tormin and its director, Mark Caruso, declined to comment further on the matter. A report in News24 by Matthew le Cordeur quoted Caruso as saying he felt the warrant was illegal as the mine was regulated by DMR not DEA. He went on to claim that Tormin was legally compliant with mining and environmental legislation.

These claims appear trite. If everything was above-board, Caruso should have no concerns. It is telling that he apparently wishes to retreat to the protection of DMR, given that department’s apparently limited grasp of its environmental responsibilities and its bizarre prior rulings.

What consequences may Tormin face? Firstly, it could be in breach of its mining licence by mining in the exclusion zone. It could be forced, under section 24 of the National Environmental Management Act,  to rectify this and to address the construction of the rock groyne. It could be ordered to properly repair the collapsed cliff. It could  be instructed to address the changes to mining methodology and put proper measures in place to prevent further erosion of the beach and cliffs. Work at the mine could be halted until this is done.

If the DEA raid found sufficient evidence – apparently computers and documents were removed from the mine – that these actions were knowingly undertaken, management could be held liable and criminal action could be instituted. Ignorance of the law is no excuse; it is the duty of the mine owners to be fully informed and adhere to all relevant legislation.

The result could involve substantial damages, a revision of the operating licence of the mine, withdrawal of the licence entirely or even the expulsion of the company from the country.

After years of civil society oversight,  the authorities have finally taken action and are investigating some serious concerns with Tormin’s management practices.

Australian mining companies have evoked mixed response in Africa. Some are exemplary, participatory and transparent. Others feel they can do as they wish without consequence. Judgement remains open in Tormin’s case.

Ashton is a journalist, author, researcher and columnist. He was commissioned by GroundUp to do this analysis.


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Are We Attracting the Wrong Kind of Mining Entrepreneurs to South Africa? The Case of MRC, Xolobeni and Tormin

I wrote this last year – it was my last article for SACSIS before that useful and highly influential news service was forced to close due to funding cuts.

Since this was published matters have deteriorated at Xolobeni and Tormin, culminating last week with the murder of Sikhosiphi ‘Bazooka’ Rhadebe‚ the head of the Amadiba Crisis Committee, a social network opposing the mining of the community’s traditional land in the Xolobeni area.

It is notable that the CEO of MRC Mark Caruso has denied any connection with this murder. However this disclaimer cannot be taken in isolation, especially given his bizarre response to critics recently; “And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger, those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers. And you will know my name is the Lord when I lay my vengeance upon thee,” which is supposedly from the Bible (Ezekiel 25:17) but is also quoted by Jules in the ultra-violent (does he make any other sort?) Quentin Tarantino film Pulp Fiction.

Such utterances cannot be excluded from the greater dialogue around the unfolding violence at Xolobeni which has been on the rise for more than a year prior to this murder, the second associated with this mining project.

Originally published 17 Jun 2015

South African wealth is founded on our extraordinary mineral bounty, conservatively valued at over $3 trillion (R36 trillion). Our future is dependent on how we manage this geological legacy. We can either harness the full spectrum of opportunities or lay ourselves open to what is known as the “resource curse” where natural resources are exploited by unscrupulous or corrupt entities, with minimal national benefit. A recent example provides some insight in how we appear to be headed down the wrong path.

Most people familiar with the mining landscape are aware of the well-publicised attempts to gain mineral rights to access the apparently lucrative wild coast heavy mineral sands, known as Xolobeni, that have repeatedly failed. Not only is this resource located amidst a rich, relatively pristine ecosystem but this is hosted within an equally rich and dynamic social fabric, protective of its cultural and natural heritage.

The erstwhile developer of this resource is a relatively unknown minor listed Australian mining company, Mineral Commodities Limited, known as MRC, headed by one Mark Caruso. Caruso creates the impression of the archetypal “ocker,” a rough and ready Australian bloke, prepared to get things done come what may.

Over the past 18 months Caruso has commissioned a new mineral sands mine called Tormin, some 350 kilometers north of Cape Town. Permission and rights to operate Tormin were gained by the former MD, South African Andrew Lashbrooke. These two have subsequently fallen out and have become embroiled in legal action in Cape High Court, where Lashbrooke seeks substantial financial redress and damages.

Tormin has also been at the centre of serious allegations that its methods of operation are illegal and irregular. It has removed tens of thousands of tonnes of garnet and ilmenite that it has not received the requisite permissions to extract. These materials have illegally been stored in informal stockpiles on agricultural land.

From an environmental perspective, a lack of suitably careful mine management has seen cliffs adjacent to the treatment plant collapse onto the beach. The company has changed its mining methods without due permission or consultation and also built illegal hard breakwaters and jetties on the beach.

On top of this, the trucks delivering materials from the mine have seriously damaged hundreds of kilometres of road by transporting materials down minor backroads instead of using the approved route. Some of the materials are radioactive and require prominent identification but vehicles are allegedly improperly identified, monitored or managed.

Local communities in Lutzville and Koekenaap are up in arms because promised benefits from the mine have failed to materialise. Instead of local job creation, workers have been brought in from Xolobeni in order to curry favour from that community.

These community tensions have resulted in allegedly illegal protests. In November the police arrested 28 community members who await finalisation of the case, with the next hearing due in July. Community leaders accuse mine management of arrogance and of only dealing with selected ward councillors who are compromised through “benefits” provided by the mine. The community feels let down by the justice system and elected leaders.

MRC has pursued a similar modus operandi in Xolobeni, where for years it has pitted members of the community against each other in order to gain permission to access the resource. False petitions have been compiled, and violence and intimidation has recently resulted in a restraining order being issued against “leaders” associated with MRC. These conflicts have been widely covered in the media and have even become the subject of an award winning film, “The Shore Break.”

However MRC, and Caruso in particular, came to South Africa having apparently learned some useful tricks in ingratiating local officials and appointees during previous mining ventures with his UK listed company, Allied Gold, in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific. Caruso gained the rights to the largest known gold resource in the Solomons, Gold Ridge, where the land rights had controversially been signed away by the resident community in a deal which created longstanding and significant social rifts. After Allied sold Gold Ridge the mine was subsequently shut down because infrastructure was insufficiently robust to deal with local flooding. Similarly poor community relations have dogged MRC’s other investments in gold mines in Papua New Guinea and Sierra Leone.

It is notable how these patterns echo the experiences of those involved in both the Tormin and the Xolobeni mineral sands resource projects. Not only has MRC been instrumental in setting community and even family members against each other at Xolobeni, through sly selection and appointment of various community proxies who have been given vehicles and benefits such as executive positions in subsidiary companies Blue Bantry and Xolco, but it has spread its influence far wider.

For instance well-supported allegations exist that MRC’s attempts to exploit the Xolobeni resource is intimately linked both to the highly contentious wild coast N2 toll road debacle, as well as to a bizarre political decision by the President to illegally interfere in regional traditional leadership matters by removing rightful amaPondo chiefs in the area. This matter was eventually decided by the Constitutional Court, which reinstated the very leaders who happened to question both the controversial N2 toll road and the Xolobeni mineral sands mine.

The link between the mine and the toll road relates to the necessity for a suitable route to transport nearly half a million 40 tonne truck loads of resource to the Durban port. It also aligns with government’s insistence that mega-projects will deliver improved living standards, despite numerous studies showing otherwise. The fact that MRC has established intimate relationships with various key political and traditional leadership stakeholders is not co-incidental.

South Africa needs to manage investment and exploitation of our mineral resources in environmentally and socially responsible and sustainable ways. We need to maximise the benefits and beneficiation of our resources. Good behaviour must be encouraged, bad practice curbed.

It appears we have failed to follow these fundamental precepts in the case of MRC. The company has created zero local beneficiation, in fact the MRC/ Lashbrooke court case centres on export of the garnet resources that were to be locally beneficiated. Now MRC simply ships its ill-gotten gains offshore to China and Australia, while creating significant social and environmental externalities.

Judging from this case it appears the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) is not a suitable agency to promote and monitor the planning and implementation of mining. Extensive interaction has proven the Department to be remarkably un-transparent and non-responsive to enquiries about MRC’s mining operations, which should be in the public domain. Since DMR assumed oversight of environmental compliance the flow of information on mining in general, and Tormin specifically, has essentially dried up.

If we are to maximise the benefit of our resources we cannot countenance the non-transparent oversight of mining and the externalisation of social and environmental impacts. Our mineral resources must benefit the nation, not just the entities exploiting them. In order to do so we need transparent due diligence processes, not a free for all where resources are exploited by unscrupulous opportunists.


This article was first published on SACSIS, the website of the South African Civil Society Information Service – http://www.sacsis.org.za

Should you wish to republish this SACSIS article, please attribute the author and cite The South African Civil Society Information Service as its source.

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Anglo American leaves us in its dust…

This article below was originally published 5 years ago, when Anglo American was contemplating development of the massive Pebble Mine in Alaska, a development fraught with danger, in order to point out the poor track record of what was once South Africa’s most powerful company and a keystone to apartheid.

Despite Anglo abandoning direct involvement with the Pebble mine after extensive international pressure was brought to bear, it remains in denial of its obligations to rehabilitate the consequences of its vast commodity extraction throughout South Africa.

I felt it worthwhile to edit and repost this article in light of Anglo Americans latest plan to sell off more of its local assets. As raised by the Centre for Environmental Rights, Anglo American needs to be far more transparent in how it manages its social and environmental responsibilities as regards both its historical legacy and its proposed asset sales.

Anglo American: Homegrown Exploitation Gone Global

By Glenn Ashton · 25 Jul 2011

Originally published by SACSIS – the South African Civil Society Information Service.


During the peak of the anti-apartheid disinvestment campaign the Anglo-American Corporation took full advantage of the situation and snapped up disinvesting companies. By the 1990’s Anglo American controlled 85% of the companies and over 60% of the wealth of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, making it the biggest economic beneficiary of apartheid.

Through its diversified holdings it controlled vast sectors of the economy. Besides mining it was involved in forestry, paper, retail, car manufacture and assembly, steel, insurance, food processing, banking and property, the media and elsewhere. Today it has evolved into a prime example of a transnational neo-colonial monster with inordinate social and environmental footprints. Even its name is redolent of colonial times and perhaps more relevantly, its colonial roots.

Anglo American was founded by the Oppenheimer family amidst the Kimberley diamond rush of the early twentieth century. The Oppenheimers challenged the status of Cecil John Rhodes, that arch-colonialist and founder of diamond giant De Beers. Anglo was formally established in 1917, with assistance from, amongst others, American robber baron J.P. Morgan. The Oppenheimer’s eventually absorbed De Beers, creating a controversial diamond monopoly, which has endured for almost a century.

Anglo-American grew and diversified into gold mining, firmly establishing itself as a dominant economic force in South Africa during the heyday of apartheid. It actively participated in the racist migrant labour dispensations pervasive throughout the region. Mine workers from across the Southern African region were housed in hostels, infamous for their poor living conditions.

Even during the dark days of apartheid Anglo American was careful to portray itself as a benevolent employer. While it collaborated and benefited from its apartheid relationships, its ownership, particularly the Oppenheimer family, actively attempted to project a liberal, even progressive line.

This was managed primarily through its ownership and control of large chunks of the print media. Yet when the Anglo-American controlled Rand Daily Mail upset the ruling Nationalists through exposing the Biko murder the plug was pulled on this leading progressive newspaper. Anglo, offered boundless opportunities by a racist government, was not about to bite the hand that fed it, least neither too early nor too hard. Today Anglo American continues to apply this pragmatic self-interest and real-politik approach.

Anglo-American was never confined only to South Africa. Just as its diamond arm De Beers bore global influence, the apartheid era Anglo American cultivated front companies to project its economic power. Minorco was established as its overseas arm to avoid the South African stigma. Its external persona was handled with extreme care and sensitivity for its roots.

Like most large corporations Anglo American demonstrates psychopathic traits, neatly encapsulated in the 2004 award-winning documentary, “The Corporation.” Its true intentions are masked by apparently benign concepts like “corporate social responsibility” and “sustainable development.” Such portrayals are far removed from exploitative realities. Anglo American’s most recent feel good catchphrase, “Real Mining. Real People. Real Difference.” should perhaps have the corollary “Real bullshit.”

This careful image management belies the realities. While the company was amongst the first in South Africa to recognise unionised workers, it did not shy away from bringing down the might of the apartheid state on the unions when their demands were too costly. As labour costs rose, mechanisation was prioritised to reduce costs. Whenever there is an industry downturn, it is inevitably the labour force that is first to go. Corporate benevolence remains an oxymoron.

This scale of exploitation is justified by prioritizing the return on capital and maximising shareholder return. Despite the work of important institutions such as King 3, the corporate model is fundamentally at odds with the supposed aims of triple bottom line accounting – social, environmental and economic sustainability.

The problem is worsened when corporations say one thing while doing another. This remains the case with Anglo-American. Its questionable practices have also been exposed in a 2007 report by the international NGO, War on Want. Their report titled, Anglo American: The Alternative Report, compares and contrasts the company’s corporate social responsibility rhetoric with its actual practices uncovering damning evidence of human rights abuses in Africa, including South Africa. On the one hand Anglo American claims to be a trendsetting model of corporate responsibility, yet on the other continues to exploit workers and the environment.

This is neatly illustrated in Anglo American’s engagement with the then-banned ANC. Informed by the high road/low road model of its scenario planner Clem Sunter, Anglo recognised both the human costs of apartheid and the economic risk of operating within a failed state. While the liberal, primarily English speaking leadership of the company claimed to be opposed to grand apartheid they were never averse to profiting from its structures. This relationship was reminiscent of the white population as a whole – just as it is impossible to find anyone who voted for the apartheid regime, it is equally impossible to identify a single quisling corporation!

Shortly after the governing ANC took control of South Africa, Anglo American and other business leaders arranged a quid pro quo between the corporate world and the incoming government. On the one hand it would be business as usual with no talk of nationalisation. On the other, corporates wasted no time in bringing the ruling elite into their cushy fold, ostensibly to support the incoming government and inspire business confidence. Accordingly  the apparently socialist tendencies of the Reconstruction and Development Project (RDP) were cast aside to be replaced with the neo-liberal GEAR policies.

While Anglo was a major beneficiary of apartheid and the peaceful transition to democratic rule, its consequent behaviour was telling. Anglo was amongst the first of the large South African corporate entities – others being Old Mutual and South African Breweries – to shift their asset bases offshore, to London. It was remarkable the new government allowed this but the reality was that corporate power held the ANC leadership over a barrel. Refusal to allow this capital exodus would have shown up the new government as being closed to transparent business practice as dictated by the Washington Consensus, with negative consequences for the country. The counter was that loosening exchange controls would hopefully attract foreign capital.

Anglo’s relocation of its resource base further protected it against possible future nationalisation. The sale of diverse, non-core assets was facilitated while reserves were accrued. Anglo American PLC returned to its roots to become a global mining player, involved in gold, copper, platinum, nickel, ferrous metals, coal, industrial minerals and diamonds, the latter controlled through close realignment with its historical fellow traveller, De Beers.

Anglo-American has subsequently copped significant media flak about allegations about poor corporate behaviour in South Africa, Ghana, Peru, Columbia and Zimbabwe and elsewhere. It has tried, and often managed, to spin its way out of trouble, using skilled PR and historical lessons in image management, portraying its best corporate face to the world while hiding its warts.

However there is no more telling indication of the nature of the beast that is Anglo American than its interest and continued participation in pursuing the controversial Pebble mine in Alaska USA. While the risks of extracting oil in the otherwise unspoiled spaces of the fragile tundra and boreal areas of the Arctic fringes are known, the risks of this mine are exceptional.

Pebble Mine is located above Bristol Bay in south-western Alaska. It is potentially the worlds richest mine. It would be the biggest mine in North America, two miles across and thousands of feet deep. It would require four massive earth dams, the largest the size of the Three Gorges Dam in China, all in an extremely seismically active area. The mineral deposits are in sulphate rich rock, which would result in acidification of the water filling these dams. The consequences of failure would be catastrophic.

The mine drains into the world’s largest remaining spawning site for sockeye salmon. Even minuscule amounts of copper can disorient salmon, rendering them unable to locate spawning sites. The mine will almost certainly have massive impacts, both on the sensitive environment and the social structure of the area, dependent on fishing. The mine has already opened community rifts; some perceive it as an opportunity, others are bitterly opposed. Were it not for extensive lobbying, boosted by the endorsement of the controversial Alaskan ex-governor Sarah Palin, this mine may have already been shelved.

In reality, nowhere in the world has a mining company been able to properly manage the full external impacts of its activities. If this were possible, the mineral extraction industry would have a benign reputation. Instead it is more accurately and correctly seen as socially and environmentally exploitative, despite the vast amounts spent on PR spin and green-wash.

Anglo-American epitomises so much that is wrong with our world. It is a company deeply rooted in neo-colonialism. No matter how supposedly progressive its core values are, it has chosen to remain a major player within the most exploitative industry on earth – that of ripping apart the fabric of our ecosystem to extract what are euphemistically called resources.

The real question Anglo American – together with its fellow resource extractors – must answer is: Whose resources are these and from whose world are they torn? The only realistic response must be that both the resources and the earth are collectively owned by us all, as so neatly analogised in James Cameron’s movie Avatar. It is not their property – it is under our collective stewardship. The riches of the earth do not and cannot only belong to those who have accrued their power and wealth through nefarious and exploitative means, including being the primary beneficiary of apartheid.

It is only through its power and legal clout that Anglo American has avoided reparations for its exploitative behaviour under apartheid. Its social impacts are recognised; miners and workers have been abandoned with paltry pensions and health severances, many consigned to the slow agonising death of silicosis. It is equally culpable for the acid mine drainage problems now plaguing the Witwatersrand, together with the radioactive pollution of watercourses. The irony of extracting platinum for pollution control while releasing vast amounts of pollution to extract it apparently escapes it. Similarly the industry has side-stepped meaningful discussion of how De Beers wants to walk away from rehabilitating vast tracts of the north-west coast of South Africa from which it has wrung decades of obscene profit.

Anglo American can spin all it wants but the reality is it is our very own, homegrown neo-colonial exploiter, gone global.


Republished under a creative commons licence.

South Africa introduces a 20% sugar tax on cooldrinks / soda.

The article below, written and published in early 2014, put forth the case for a sugar tax in South Africa. The good news is that the South African Finance minister announced that a 20% tax would be implemented on cooldrinks / sodas as from April 2016, more than a year from now.

While it is partially understandable that there is a delay in implementing this tax in order to put the correct structures in place, I raise the concern that the soft drink industry will use this interim time period to lobby strongly against this tax and to use and abuse the “science” to suit their case.

The fact of the matter is that this tax will raise an amount estimated at between R10 and R15 billion. This is less than the estimated cost of diabetes treatment alone for South Africans. The costs of obesity, cancer,  cardiovascular diseases and other diseases linked to high sugar intakes are also unacceptably high and add to the health burden, over and above those of diabetes.

The fact is that the industry has already begun to raise its voice against this tax. In light of this it is critical that the government and the Minstries of Finance and Health in particular stick to their guns in ensuring that this tax is implemented on the proposed date and that the sugar and soft drink industries do not succeed in watering down this tax.

It must be additionally noted that the sugar industry is the only remaining sector of the South African agricultural industry that still receives subsidisation from the government. It is ironic that a product with such high health costs is not only encouraged but supported by government on the one hand and is now to be indirectly taxed on the other. Perhaps the Minister of Finance should examine this rather strange fiscal contradiction?


Not so cool drinks: Is it time for a sin tax?

Glenn Ashton.

Originally published on 21 January 2014.

A few decades ago city workers anticipated a cheap, relatively healthy lunch of a bunny chow – a dollop of stew or curry in a half loaf, along with a pint of milk. Today inflation and industrial food have shifted us to where a lunchtime visit to the corner shop or local supermarket reveals the extent of our dietary rot. For too many lunch often means a half a loaf of bread and a bottle of cool drink.

In our cities cool drinks have almost become ubiquitous, the daytime drink of choice. Sales are relentlessly driven by inescapable, hard-edged advertising, reinforced by aspiration, sugar rush and high doses of caffeine as worker fuel. Yet the reality is these are drinks from hell with no upside, either for productivity or health.

Despite pervasive industry spin, sugar, especially at such excessive levels, can never form part of a healthy diet. Sugar is basically empty calories, providing energy with no other nutritional benefit, all at considerable metabolic cost. Extensive research has shown how sugar is linked, through its close relationship to obesity and metabolic disruption, to increasingly common diseases such as diabetes, cardiac and circulatory problems, along with numerous other so-called dietary linked lifestyle diseases.

The United Nations World Health Organisation (WHO), informed by numerous medical and scientific experts has been convinced that excess sugar consumption essentially constitutes a dietary poison and presently wishes to recommend a halving of sugar consumption. Predictably, industry is counter-attacking. As far back as 2003 the WHO linked local sugar consumption in South Africa to increased risk of chronic disease, including obesity and associated diseases.

Since then sugar consumption has increased markedly. Sugar industry figures illustrate per capita consumption rising by nearly 15% over the past 13 years, to over 37 kilogrammes for every citizen. Diabetes incidence has accelerated even faster, up by 3.8% in 2010 alone. Notably, deaths ascribed to diabetes have risen most amongst the black community, from 5 754 cases in 1999 to 12 513 in 2010.

But this unfolding epidemic has a far more sinister side. Individuals with diabetes are more likely to succumb to tuberculosis, our leading cause of death. They are more susceptible to hypertension and circulatory diseases. Diabetes complicates treatment of HIV and AIDS. Even otherwise routine infectious diseases like influenza are more risky in diabetics for several reasons. Therefore, as an apparently distinct disease diabetes has major impacts on other leading causes of death.

While sugar may not be proven as the sole cause of diabetes, it is nevertheless strongly associated with both causation and worsening of outcomes. Some population sectors are highly predisposed to diabetes, particularly those of Indian origin in South Africa, where it is the single leading cause of death. More worryingly, at least half, and up to 85% of local diabetics are undiagnosed. When they are, it is often too late.

This epidemic does not only affect South Africans. It is predicted to become a leading cause of mortality in sub Saharan Africa by 2020. Drinking a single 330 millilitre soft drink daily is estimated to raise the risk of diabetes by 22%. Two litres of cold drink contains at least a cup of sugar, sometimes more. In 2011 South Africans each consumed nearly 50 litres of cool drink.

These excessive levels of sugar consumption affect everyone, from building site labourers to mothers inadvertently preparing their children for obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the market predicts accelerated growth in sales, with the consequence of an anticipated near doubling of diabetes cases over the next fifteen years as high sugar intakes are compounded by other poor dietary and lifestyle choices such as a lack of exercise and excessive intake of fats and salt.

The financial burden of the cost of medication alone for diabetes patients in South Africa is staggering, at around R7000 per individual, or a cumulative cost of over R14 billion a year to our health system, further treatment aside. So what can we do about this assault on our health?

Mexico recently proposed a 1 peso (80 cents) per litre tax on sodas, as they are called there. With Mexican obesity rates reported at 70% of adults and a third of children, action is clearly needed. The initiative was, predictably and bitterly attacked both by manufacturers and the sugar industry. They questioned New York’s ex-mayor Michael Bloomberg’s attempt to promote the tax, which was recently rejected in his home city, accusing him of hypocrisy.

Other places around the world have mooted or instituted cool drink or sugar taxes to deal with the impacts of sugar consumption. 33 states in the US have soda taxes, as does France, with a 3.5% tax introduced in 2012. Norway has a broader sugar tax, as does Denmark, although the latter proposes to abandon it. Indian research shows a 20% cold drink tax could avoid nearly half a million cases of diabetes and make a dent in obesity rates.

The concept of these Pigouvian taxes is neither new nor unfamiliar. The economist Pigou suggested that if business profits by selling a product that creates high external costs – for instance, the health costs of tobacco and liquor – the state should mitigate these by taxing the product. In South Africa these are traditionally referred to as sin taxes. There is no reason that sugar, along with other unhealthy foods laden with fats and salt, should not be taxed in order, on the one hand, to offset health costs while reducing consumption on the other.

Of course the problem can arise, as with tobacco, that the state becomes as addicted to the tax revenue as consumers are to sugar or tobacco. This is not a glib comment; studies clearly show the addictive nature of sugar. Food technologists constantly strive to make food as enticingly palatable as possible through subtle combinations of fats, salt and sugar.

Given the combined health effects of these ingredients, stricter regulation, combined with taxation would seem to be the most sensible way to protect ourselves against ourselves from this premeditated assault by the food industry. It is economically unsustainable to continue to subsidise junk food by absorbing the direct costs to our health system in order to treat the symptoms while failing to tackle their causes.


This article was originally published by SACSIS, the South African Civil Society Information Service and is republished under a creative commons licence.

Rip Eskom Apart – 2014

By Glenn Ashton · 18 Mar 2014

While rolling blackouts are never a joke, many South Africans cracked an ironic smile when Minister of Public Enterprises Malusi Gigaba remarked that Eskom was better prepared to deal with their recent power supply crisis than in 2008. Thanks for that insight, Minister.

Problem is, we still have rolling blackouts six years on, with things looking pretty dire as we approach winter. As usual we all pay, in different ways, for these systematic failures at the highest levels. Surely it is time to rip the inefficient beast that is Eskom apart, for once and for all?

Our most recent energy crisis comes against the background of the total withdrawal from Parliamentary consideration of the Independent System and Market Operator Bill, which potentially could have opened up our power market by levelling the playing field away from Eskom domination, enabling broader access to energy suppliers. The government shelved this bill for reasons which remain unclear. This all seems to run counter to Energy Minister Ben Martins’ statement that Eskom could no longer be player, referee and linesman in the energy sector, when he spoke at a recent Energy Indaba.

The Independent Operator Bill has been in the pipeline for nearly four years, through several iterations. The fact that our Minister Gigaba feels sufficiently strongly to defend inefficient behemoths like Eskom, then we have a problem. While Ministers Martins and Gigaba may demonstrate public solidarity, their policy positions are incongruous.

In reality, the ongoing incompetence of Eskom to manage its affairs is inescapable. Not only has it failed to pull Medupi contractors in line, but it attempts to abrogate responsibility for wet coal. There are multiple levels of irony, piled one atop the other. First is the quaint way we refer to “load-shedding,” rather than black- or brownouts, in our uniquely South African attempt to render such unpalatable reality more politically correct and expedient.

Second is how the most recent crisis was triggered by record breaking late summer rainfall, symptomatic of climate change. As one of the world heaviest polluters, South Africa, with Eskom in the lead, has failed to deal with its disproportionate emission levels. To further rub salt into this wound in the fabric of the ecosphere, Eskom, along with one of its suppliers, Exxaro, openly boast that we have 200 years of coal reserves, emphasising how this commercial vision blinkers our national energy policy.

In fact Eskom recently went yet further, asking for exemption from the stipulations of our long delayed National Air Quality Act because it would be too expensive to comply. Despite knowing about these requirements since 2004, Eskom has failed to address them. Even the proposed scrubbers for Medupi are to be postponed, indicative of a dismissive attitude toward the Air Quality Act.

Then there is the paradox that the company responsible for supplying sodden coal to Eskom, rendering the huge Kendal power station inoperable, was Billiton Coal. This is a division of the same transnational corporation, BHP Billiton, which receives Eskom power at prices well below cost for its Richards Bay aluminium smelters, devouring nearly 10% of our national energy supply.

Billiton Coal enjoys similar commercial confidentiality to Billiton Aluminium, where years of legal probing eventually revealed the true facts of its outrageously beneficial contracts with Eskom. The Billiton Coal contracts are similarly inaccessible, limiting public oversight of this serial failure. Given the strategic impacts of these failures on our national economy, these agreements should be closely scrutinised, with the guilty party held to account. Surely it is not the business of the state to subsidise massive transnational corporations? The National Energy Regulator really ought to show its teeth, if it has any.

Whichever way you cut it there is little good to coal power generation. Not only does it generate greenhouse gases, it also dumps over 200 tonnes of mercury in our soil and seas every year, along with a broad range of other nasty pollutants. Emissions are directly responsible for tens of thousands of deaths and illness. It destroys natural resources where it is mined. Despite all of this it remains central to Eskom policy for the foreseeable future.

The luxury of monopoly has blinkered Eskom to the extent that it simply cannot see beyond coal and nuclear. While it has commissioned some wind energy, this was only because of a compulsory offset for its World Bank loan to build Medupi and Kusile Coal stations, in a sop, a greenwash, to alternative energy.

So how should we restructure our overweight energy monopoly? Almost all energy analysts agree that the grid, that is the power lines and network to connect our national energy system, should become a stand-alone entity. This would immediately reduce Eskom dominance. It would also encourage the development of a smart grid, with an increased shift in focus away from large power plants toward decentralised medium, small and micro energy suppliers.

A major advantage of opening up the system, particularly to smaller operators, is that they are primary drivers of employment and economic growth. Eskom’s historical focus has been an energy supplier to mining and heavy industry, such as the steel and petro-chemical industry. This sector is contracting and shedding jobs. If South Africa is to become globally competitive it needs to shift toward a far more diversified economy premised on beneficiation and value-add to these primary industries.

Beyond creating a stand-alone smart grid, it is imperative to shift toward gas as a transitional fuel as part of the shift away from coal. Converting some of the older Eskom power stations, which are running out of locally accessible coal, to gas power would be one way. Another is to replace our hugely inefficient diesel driven turbine generators with gas. By securing preferential rates from neighbours like Mozambique and Tanzania, each of which have massive gas reserves, we could rapidly start to transition toward a cleaner economy.

We should also increase research around ground-breaking new power sources. Modular concentrated solar power plants are one concept that South Africa ought to have researched rather than wasting billions on the Pebble Bed nuclear pipe dream. Another is to develop viable current generation modules to tap into the Mozambique Current running down our east coast at a constant 5 kilometres per hour.

By coupling these opportunities to other emerging decentralised energy sources of energy, such as cross-subsidised domestic and industrial solar installations, South Africa could come to the forefront of international energy and policy development, while creating employment. In the final analysis, anything would be an improvement on the antediluvian, monopolistic state run Eskom dystopia that has actively prevented the emergence of a vision of a better energy vision for all. We certainly have sufficient resources – they just need to be prised from Eskom’s greedy clutches.

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